To answer the first part of your question, no, we did not see Rose again (although we saw something taking her form, which we'll get to later).
As for the second half of your question, yes. We saw the return of a few pre-Clara companions! After Clara was introduced (as Oswin) in "Asylum of the Daleks", we saw Amy Pond and Rory Williams from "Asylum of the Daleks"-"The Angels Take Manhattan", (Amy later returned [as a hallucination] in "The Time of the Doctor"), Susan Foreman in "The Name of the Doctor", and River Song in "The Angels Take Manhattan", "The Name of the Doctor", and "The Husbands of River Song".
Outside of the TV series, Bernice Summerfield returned in "Big Bang Generation" (BBC New Series Adventures novel), "Shroud of Sorrow" (BBC New Series Adventures novel) saw flashbacks to various companions, and a number of novels, novelisations, and audios featured pre-Clara companions appearing with their respective Doctors. Bernice Summerfield also appeared in her own series of novels and audios, both published by Big Finish. If the Brigadier is counted as a companion, he featured in his own series of novels, published by Candy Jar Books. These books came well after Clara's introduction in September 1st, 2012.
Finally, "The Doctor's Wife" revealed the TARDIS to be alive, so, if you count her as a companion, she appears in nearly every episode before and after Clara's introduction.